Urological cancer or Bladder Cancer are a group of cancers that develop in the urinary tract and the male reproductive system They include kidney cancer, bladder cancer, testicular cancer, prostate cancer, penile cancer, adrenal cancer and cancers of the ureter.
Treatment of each urological cancer differs and is dependent on the size of cancer, how far it has spread and on the overall health of the patient.
The bladder, an expandable muscular sac, is the body’s urine storage before it is released out the body. Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that, as with other cancers, develops when cells begin to divide and grow uncontrollably. There are three main types of bladder cancer most common of which is transitional cells carcinoma (develops in the cells that line the inside of the bladder), squamous cell carcinoma (usually develops after an infection and irritation) and adenocarcinoma (begins in the mucus secreting glands). Most types of bladder cancers are highly treatable (50%) when diagnosed at an early stage.
The surgical operation, alone or combined with other treatment, are usually performed in the treatment of bladder cancer.
Kidney cancer develops when cells in the one or both kidneys grow uncontrollably and form tumours. Found on both sides of the backbone just below the rib cage, the kidneys filter water and waste material from the blood creating urine. Kidneys also regulate electrolyte balance (salts and minerals such as sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and phosphate, that conduct electrical impulses in the body) and produce hormones and enzymes (such as erythropoietin and renin) that regulate blood pressure and the production of red blood cells.
Nephrectomy is the most common type of treatment practised for kidney cancer if cancer has not spread to other body parts. It involves the surgical removal of the cancerous tissues in order eliminate cancer and to stop it from developing further.
A rare type of cancer that can develop anywhere on the penis, but is most often found on the foreskin. It is slow to spread and can be cured when diagnosed early. If left untreated, however, it can spread to the lymph nodes and other body parts. Surgery remains one of the most common types of treatment for penile cancer.Not all growth on the penis is cancerous though they can look and act as such. Non-cancerous (benign) abnormal growth sometimes can develop on the penis. Most affect the foreskin or the glans.
Treatment for penile cancer is dependent on stage and location of the cancer.
The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland located under the bladder and in front of the rectum and is responsible for the production of seminal fluids. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer in men and is due to cancerous cells developing in the prostate gland. For the most part prostate cancer is slow in developing and slow in spreading to other organs. However, as tumours begin to develop cells break away and may reach the lymph nodes, seminal vesicles, bones around the hip and pelvis area and/or the lungs. Depending on the stage of the most common treatment for prostate cancer is surgery.
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